Question: In drug-using offenders with co-occurring mental illness how effective are psychological and non-psychological interventions for reducing criminal activity or drug use, or both?


One well-conducted systematic review of 5 studies found no evidence for an effect on self-reported drug use or re-arrest but there was some evidence to suggest a reduction in re-incarceration. The trials evaluated case management, therapeutic communities and motivational interviewing with cognitive skills and were conducted in secure settings and the court judicial system in the USA; no studies evaluated interventions in community settings (parole or probation). There was no evidence on the effect of pharmacological interventions.

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